NOTE: FOR SOME REASON THERE IS A SPACE BETWEEN 'I & D' IN THIS LINK - SO COPY AND PASTE IT INTO YOUR BROWSER AND TAKE THE SPACE OUT........That will take you to the article... OR iF YOU CLICK ON THE LINK YOU WILL SEE '%20' IN THE BROWSER WHEN IT SAYS 'NOT FOUND'. DELETE THE '%20' AND CLICK ON GO .......YOU WILL GET THERE....... Sho
Oh gosh,,,,,,,,,just what might be causing some problems, say in human skin?
VIRAL WARFARE The dendrimers (ball-and-stick structures) in VivaGel prevent HIV infection by binding to receptors on the virus's surface (orange). This interaction keeps HIV from infecting T cells.
BETHANY HALFORD, C&EN WASHINGTON
Dendrimers--treelike macromolecules with branching tendrils that reach out from a central core--have a way of grabbing scientists' imaginations. With dendrimers and dendritic polymers now playing key roles in new technologies and the first dendrimer-based pharmaceutical poised to enter the market as early as 2008, dendrimer scientists are hoping to snare profits as well.
Dendrimer research has been slowly but steadily gaining ground since the late 1970s, when scientists like Fritz Vögtle, at the University of Bonn, in Germany, and Donald A. Tomalia, then working for Dow Chemical in Midland, Mich., started to build the first of these branching molecules. A keyword search for "dendrimers" and "dendritic polymers" shows that the number of dendrimer-related papers published has grown from a handful in the early 1990s to nearly 1,000 papers in 2004 alone.
Researchers have made all manner of dendrimers: graphitelike dendrimers, light-harvesting dendrimers, dendrimers with cross-linked surfaces, dendrimers that self-destruct. Scientists have used the hollow cavities deep within the branching structures to hold metal nanoparticles, drugs, and imaging agents. Dendrimer researchers seem limited only by their creativity and, of course, the relatively high cost of making the dendrimers.
The macromolecules are constructed around a simple core unit. Each successive reaction introduces a new "generation" of branching. But as the molecules grow, the cramped conditions at the dendrimer's periphery lead to longer reaction times and more complicated mixtures of products from which the desired dendrimer has to be fished out. This means that dendrimers don't necessarily come cheap. Three hundred milligrams of a seventh-generation polyamidoamine, or PAMAM, dendrimer costs about $600.
Now. lets see what dendrimers and nanotubes have in common.
So dendrimers are even better than buckyballs?
"Dendrimers have been around for some time - the term was first coined by Donald Tomalia and the Dow Chemical Company in the early 1980s. For most of this time they haven't been considered as nanotechnology, but then neither were nanotubes. Many people would probably file them under polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry (a macromolecule is basically a very large molecule, such as a protein or many polymers, as opposed to a small molecule such as water). It could also be argued, however, that dendrimers are a fine example of nanoscale engineering and hierarchical self-assembly.
But even if the synthesis of dendrimers is not considered to be nanotechnology, some of the uses to which they can be put certainly are. Precisely defined and engineered macromolecules like dendrimers hold great promise as building blocks for complex supramolecular structures with specifically designed functions. They can be considered as versatile nanoscale components for building nanoscale structures.
Dendrimers can act as nanoscale carrier molecules in the sorts of applications where nanoparticles and nanocapsules are seeing increasing use, such as drug delivery. The enormous variety of structures that can be built, with different physical - including optical and electrical - and chemical properties, make dendrimers potentially a great deal more versatile than the alternatives. In addition, they can be made with atomic precision, which becomes necessary when trying to build nanoscale structures or "devices" with sophisticated and complex functionality.
Dendrimers also find applications in more traditional areas, such as coatings and inks. Whether used in nanotechnology or traditional technology, dendrimers are synthetically versatile which explains the ever-increasing interest they are provoking. In terms of mankind's nascent, but growing, capabilities in molecular engineering, dendrimers represent the state of the art.
Dendrimers can also act as scavengers of metal ions, offering the potential for environmental clean-up operations because their size allows them to be filtered out with ultrafiltration techniques. That may be useful for cleaning up after a "dirty bomb", for example. They are also finding applications in protection and decontamination relating to biological and chemical attacks, mostly under the watchful eye of the US military.
NASA is currently researching dendrimers for detecting apoptosis, or cell death, to diagnose radiation damage in astronauts before symptoms become apparent. A commonly heard piece of nanotechnology hype is that it will give us the ability to detect cancer at the single-cell level. That's somewhat misleading since this can already be done and does not need to involve nanotechnology. However, dendrimers promise the ability to fight cancer at the cellular level, performing the tasks of detection, delivering a payload and then monitoring to check that the drug has worked. Such a creation may well warrant the use of that overused word, "nanodevice".
But the best thing about this promising new nanotechnology is the fact that it isn't new and so you can already buy dendrimers in bulk from standard chemical catalogues.
About the author Tim Harper is the founder of CMP Cientifica, Europe's largest nanotechnology information company, the Executive Director of the European NanoBusiness Association and an advisor to the US NanoBusiness Alliance. "
Deez: Is it in the stuff?
Jun 27, 2021 4:48:54 GMT -5
Admin: Personally, I have been unable to understand why I have remained so ill after so much work on my part, bingo found it, my poreclain teeth were attached to metal, go figure!!!! After getting ill with Morgellons, had mercury removed and have over and over a
Jul 2, 2021 16:08:33 GMT -5
Admin: again refused metals in my mouth and paid to have gold taken out, to be sure, only to discover this the other day, explains so much, the x rays actually affects my skin where the d**n metal is, go figure.
Jul 2, 2021 16:10:08 GMT -5
A plaace to share : Im finding I feeling under attac.. I love hearing from those that have been at this wae and what it takes just to not give up and let it take over,,, I have realy need a place to meet with others. people who unerstand know what im talking about about..
Jul 9, 2021 14:41:50 GMT -5
A plaace to share : would gold in my teeth make the ringing happen?
Jul 9, 2021 14:57:29 GMT -5
Admin: A place to share you might go to the charles e holman group and think they know of places where more people are a part of, I had problems with Gold in my mouth as well, just saying
Jul 10, 2021 12:40:15 GMT -5
Admin: The Virus was tweaked in the lab in China and then booted out the door to the world, no accident, like they want you to think, this was a purposeful action for depopulation heard them speaking about it in 2003 near Aspen Colorado
Jul 12, 2021 13:14:02 GMT -5
Admin: Also great reset courtesy of Klaus Schwabb et Al. (makes you wonder if et AL meaning others is really Al is Artificial Intelligence
Jul 14, 2021 7:36:05 GMT -5
Admin: mRNA Vaccine Inventor Concerned That Anti-Vaxxer’s Concerns Will Be Validated
Jul 14, 2021 7:59:33 GMT -5
nikkibonn: Hi there! I'm new, just checking in here, first. Is anyone here?
Jul 23, 2021 0:04:04 GMT -5
Admin: Just letting the trolls know I'm fighting tooth and nail! Biowarfare is the same no matter the name of the condition, lyme, Morgellons,COVID 19
Jul 25, 2021 0:25:39 GMT -5
warrior444: here fighting the good fight my peeps.... biological warfare is right.......i wouldn't wish this on my worst enemy...this will make 14 years of living with Morgellons and I can honestly say i'm ready to give up........nothing touches these beasts!
Jul 25, 2021 17:05:47 GMT -5
Admin: Stop fighting it and work on placing your body into balance, that is the only thing that works, had it for 40 years, don't you dare give up!!
Jul 25, 2021 22:54:55 GMT -5
maki: HALLO bin neu und frisch mit den nsymptomen
Jul 30, 2021 11:13:10 GMT -5
Jul 30, 2021 11:13:41 GMT -5
makiavelli12: Der von Ihnen eingegebene Name ist bereits vergeben. Bitte wählen Sie einen neuen Namen.
Jul 30, 2021 11:14:35 GMT -5
Admin: Register with a different name, just an option
Jul 30, 2021 12:38:45 GMT -5